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He abolished slavery in Portugal and in the Portuguese colonies in India; reorganized the army and the navy; restructured the University of Coimbra , and ended discrimination against different Christian sects in Portugal.
These reforms gained him enemies in the upper classes, especially among the high nobility, who despised him as a social upstart.
Disaster fell upon Portugal in the morning of 1 November , when Lisbon was struck by a violent earthquake with an estimated moment magnitude of 8.
The city was razed to the ground by the earthquake and the subsequent tsunami and ensuing fires. We bury the dead and take care of the living.
Despite the calamity and huge death toll , Lisbon suffered no epidemics and within less than one year was already being rebuilt. The new city centre of Lisbon was designed to resist subsequent earthquakes.
Architectural models were built for tests, and the effects of an earthquake were simulated by marching troops around the models. As his power grew, his enemies increased in number, and bitter disputes with the high nobility became frequent.
In Joseph I was wounded in an attempted assassination. The Jesuits were expelled from the country and their assets confiscated by the crown. This was the final stroke that broke the power of the aristocracy.
Joseph I made his loyal minister Count of Oeiras in The Marquis of Pombal died on his estate at Pombal in With the occupation by Napoleon, Portugal began a slow but inexorable decline that lasted until the 20th century.
In the autumn of , Napoleon moved French troops through Spain to invade Portugal. From to , British-Portuguese forces would successfully fight against the French invasion of Portugal in the Peninsular War , during which the royal family and the Portuguese nobility , including Maria I, relocated to the Portuguese territory of Brazil , at that time a colony of the Portuguese Empire , in South America.
This episode is known as the Transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil. As a result of the change in its status and the arrival of the Portuguese royal family, Brazilian administrative, civic, economical , military, educational , and scientific apparatus were expanded and highly modernized.
However, the King of Portugal remained in Brazil until the Liberal Revolution of , which started in Porto , demanded his return to Lisbon in Thus he returned to Portugal but left his son Pedro in charge of Brazil.
Brazilian independence was recognized in , whereby Emperor Pedro I granted to his father the titular honour of Emperor of Brazil.
Though Pedro was his heir, and reigned briefly as Pedro IV, his status as a Brazilian monarch was seen as an impediment to holding the Portuguese throne by both nations.
Pedro abdicated in favour of his daughter, Maria II. Under his reign, roads, telegraphs, and railways were constructed and improvements in public health advanced.
His popularity increased when, during the cholera outbreak of —, he visited hospitals handing out gifts and comforting the sick.
At the height of European colonialism in the 19th century, Portugal had already lost its territory in South America and all but a few bases in Asia.
During this phase, Portuguese colonialism focused on expanding its outposts in Africa into nation-sized territories to compete with other European powers there.
With the Conference of Berlin of , Portuguese Africa territories had their borders formally established on request of Portugal in order to protect the centuries-long Portuguese interests in the continent from rivalries enticed by the Scramble for Africa.
Even before the turn of the 20th century, railway tracks as the Benguela railway in Angola, and the Beira railway in Mozambique, started to be built to link coastal areas and selected inland regions.
Other episodes during this period of the Portuguese presence in Africa include the British Ultimatum. This forced the Portuguese military to retreat from the land between the Portuguese colonies of Mozambique and Angola most of present-day Zimbabwe and Zambia , which had been claimed by Portugal and included in its " Pink Map ", which clashed with British aspirations to create a Cape to Cairo Railway.
Manuel II of Portugal became the new king, but was eventually overthrown by the 5 October revolution , which abolished the regime and instated republicanism in Portugal.
Political instability and economic weaknesses were fertile ground for chaos and unrest during the Portuguese First Republic. Gradually, new economic development projects and relocation of mainland Portuguese citizens into the overseas provinces in Africa were initiated, with Angola and Mozambique , as the largest and richest overseas territories, being the main targets of those initiatives.
After India attained independence in , pro-Indian residents of Dadra and Nagar Haveli , with the support of the Indian government and the help of pro-independence organisations, separated the territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli from Portuguese rule in Another forcible retreat from overseas territories occurred in December when Portugal refused to relinquish the territories of Goa , Daman and Diu.
As a result, the Portuguese army and navy were involved in armed conflict in its colony of Portuguese India against the Indian Armed Forces.
The operations resulted in the defeat and surrender of the limited Portuguese defensive garrison, which was forced to surrender to a much larger military force.
The outcome was the loss of the remaining Portuguese territories in the Indian subcontinent. Also in the early s, independence movements in the Portuguese overseas provinces of Angola , Mozambique and Guinea in Africa, resulted in the Portuguese Colonial War — Throughout the colonial war period Portugal had to deal with increasing dissent, arms embargoes and other punitive sanctions imposed by most of the international community.
This period was characterized by social turmoil and power disputes between left- and right-wing political forces. Over one million Portuguese refugees fled the former Portuguese provinces as white settlers were usually not considered part of the new identities of the former Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia.
By , all the Portuguese African territories were independent and Portugal held its first democratic elections in 50 years. In this capacity Soares tried to resume the economic growth and development record that had been achieved before the Carnation Revolution, during the last decade of the previous regime.
He initiated the process of accession to the European Economic Community EEC by starting accession negotiations as early as Portugal bounced between socialism and adherence to the neoliberal model.
Land reform and nationalizations were enforced; the Portuguese Constitution approved in was rewritten in order to accommodate socialist and communist principles.
Until the constitutional revisions of and , the constitution was a highly charged ideological document with numerous references to socialism, the rights of workers, and the desirability of a socialist economy.
In , the independence of East Timor Asia was formally recognized by Portugal, after an incomplete decolonization process that was started in because of the Carnation Revolution, but interrupted by an Indonesian armed invasion and occupation.
On 26 March , Portugal started to implement Schengen Area rules, eliminating border controls with other Schengen members while simultaneously strengthening border controls with non-member states.
The Republic of Ireland was the only EU state to hold a democratic referendum on the Lisbon Treaty; it was initially rejected by voters in The territory of Portugal includes an area in the Iberian Peninsula referred to as the continent by most Portuguese and two archipelagos in the Atlantic Ocean: Mainland Portugal is split by its main river, the Tagus , that flows from Spain and disgorges in Tagus Estuary, in Lisbon, before escaping into the Atlantic.
The northern landscape is mountainous towards the interior with several plateaus indented by river valleys, whereas the south, including the Algarve and the Alentejo regions, is characterized by rolling plains.
The archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores are scattered within the Atlantic Ocean: Geologically, these islands were formed by volcanic and seismic events.
The last terrestrial volcanic eruption occurred in —58 Capelinhos and minor earthquakes occur sporadically, usually of low intensity. This is the 3rd largest exclusive economic zone of the European Union and the 11th largest in the world.
There are however, variations from the highlands to the lowlands: Rivas Martinez, presents several different bioclimatic zones for Portugal. Portuguese Institute of the Sea and the Atmosphere.
The record high of In these places snow can fall any time from October to May. In the South of the country snowfalls are rare but still occur in the highest elevations.
Both the archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira have a subtropical climate, although variations between islands exist, making weather predictions very difficult owing to rough topography.
Some islands in Azores do have drier months in the summer. Porto Santo island in Madeira has a semi-arid steppe climate BSh.
The Serra da Estrela , the highest mountain range on continental Portugal. Beach in Vila Nova de Milfontes , on the Alentejo region.
The cultivated hillsides of the Douro river valley of Northern Portugal. Monsaraz and the Alqueva Reservoir on the background, on the Alentejo.
Cabo da Roca , the westernmost point of mainland Europe. Despite the fact that humans have occupied the territory of Portugal for thousands of years, something still remains of the original vegetation.
Due to the human population decrease and rural exodus, Pyrenean oak and other local native trees are colonizing many abandoned areas.
Boar , Iberian red deer, roe deer, and the Iberian wild goat, are reported to have expanded greatly during recent decades. Boars were found recently roaming at night inside large urban areas, like in Setubal.
Protected areas of Portugal include one national park Portuguese: Parque Nacional , 12 natural parks Portuguese: Parque Natural , nine natural reserves Portuguese: Reserva Natural , five natural monuments Portuguese: Monumento Natural , and seven protected landscapes Portuguese: These natural environments are shaped by diverse flora, and include widespread species of pine especially the Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea species , the English oak Quercus robur , the Pyrenean oak Quercus pyrenaica the chestnut Castanea sativa , the cork-oak Quercus suber , the holm oak Quercus ilex or the Portuguese oak Quercus faginea.
Due to their economic value, some species of the genus Eucalyptus were introduced and are now common, despite their environmental impact.
Laurisilva is a unique type of subtropical rainforest, which nowadays, in Europe, is only restricted to the Iberian Peninsula: Portugal is an important stopover for migratory birds, in places such as Cape St.
Vincent or the Monchique mountains, where thousands of birds cross from Europe to Africa during the autumn or in the spring return migration.
Most of the avian species congregate along the Iberian Peninsula since it is the closest stopover between Northern Europe and Africa.
Six hundred bird species occur in Portugal either for nesting or during the course of migration , and annually there are new registries of nesting species.
The archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira are transient stopover for American, European, and African birds, while continental Portugal mostly encounters European and African bird species.
There are more than freshwater fish species, varying from the giant European catfish in the Tagus International Natural Park to some small and endemic species that live only in small lakes along the western portion of country, for example.
Some of these rare and specific species are highly endangered because of habitat loss, pollution and drought.
Up-welling along the west coast of Portugal makes the sea extremely rich in nutrients and diverse species of marine fish; the Portuguese marine waters are one of the richest in the world.
Marine fish species are more common, and include thousands of species, such as the sardine Sardina pilchardus , tuna and Atlantic mackerel.
Bioluminescent species are also well represented including species in different colour spectrum and forms , like the glowing plankton that are possible to observe in some beaches.
There are many endemic insect species, most only found in certain parts of Portugal, while other species are more widespread like the stag beetle Lucanus cervus and the cicada.
The Macaronesian islands Azores and Madeira have many endemic species like birds, reptiles, bats, insects, snails and slugs that evolved independently from other regions of Portugal.
In Madeira, for example, it is possible to observe more than species of land gastropods. The Constitution grants the division or separation of powers among four bodies referred as "organs of Sovereignty": The President, who is elected to a five-year term, has an executive role: The Assembly of the Republic is a single chamber parliament composed of deputies elected for a four-year term.
The Courts are organized into several levels, among the judicial, administrative and fiscal branches. A thirteen-member Constitutional Court oversees the constitutionality of the laws.
The Head of State of Portugal is the President of the Republic , elected to a five-year term by direct, universal suffrage. He or she has also supervision and reserve powers.
Presidential powers include the appointment of the Prime Minister and the other members of the Government where the President takes into account the results of legislative elections ; dismissing the Prime Minister; dissolving the Assembly of the Republic to call early elections ; vetoing legislation which may be overridden by the Assembly ; and declaring a state of war or siege.
The President is advised on issues of importance by the Council of State , which is composed of six senior civilian officers, any former Presidents elected under the Constitution, five-members chosen by the Assembly, and five selected by the president.
The Government is both the organ of sovereignty that conducts the general politics of the country and the superior body of the public administration.
It has essentially Executive powers, but has also limited Legislative powers. The Government can legislate about its own organization, about areas covered by legislative authorizations conceded by the Assembly of the Republic and about the specific regulation of generalist laws issued by the Assembly.
Each government is required to define the broad outline of its policies in a programme, and present it to the Assembly for a mandatory period of debate.
The failure of the Assembly to reject the government programme by an absolute majority of deputies confirms the cabinet in office. The Assembly of the Republic , in Lisbon is the national parliament of Portugal.
It is the main Legislative body, although the Government also has limited legislative powers. The Assembly of the Republic is a unicameral body composed of up to deputies.
Elected by universal suffrage according to a system of closed party-list proportional representation , deputies serve four-year terms of office, unless the President dissolves the Assembly and calls for new elections.
The Portuguese legal system is part of the civil law legal system, also called the continental family legal system. The main laws include the Constitution , as amended , the Portuguese Civil Code , as amended and the Penal Code of Portugal , as amended.
Other relevant laws are the Commercial Code , as amended and the Civil Procedure Code , as amended. The Public Ministry , headed by the Attorney General of the Republic, constitutes the independent body of public prosecutors.
Portuguese law applied in the former colonies and territories and continues to be the major influence for those countries. Portugal was the first country in the world to abolish life imprisonment in and was one of the first countries to abolish the death penalty.
Maximum jail sentences are limited to 25 years. Portugal is also known for having decriminalized the usage of all common drugs in , the first country in the world to do so.
Portugal decriminalized possession of effectively all drugs that are still illegal in other developed nations including cannabis , cocaine , heroin , and LSD.
While possession is legal, trafficking and possession of more than "10 days worth of personal use" are still punishable by jail time and fines.
People caught with small amounts of any drug are given the choice to go to a rehab facility, and may refuse treatment without consequences.
Drug use among to year-olds also declined, however the use of marijuana rose only slightly among that age group.
On 31 May , Portugal became the sixth country in Europe and the eighth country in the world to legally recognize same-sex marriage on the national level.
The law came into force on 5 June Administratively, Portugal is divided into municipalities Portuguese: Operationally, the municipality and civil parish, along with the national government, are the only legally identifiable local administrative units identified by the government of Portugal for example, cities, towns or villages have no standing in law, although may be used as catchment for the defining services.
For statistical purposes the Portuguese government also identifies NUTS , inter-municipal communities and informally, the district system, used until European integration and being phased-out by the national government.
Portugal Continental and the autonomous regions of Portugal Azores and Madeira. The 18 districts of mainland Portugal are: It has a friendship alliance and dual citizenship treaty with its former colony, Brazil.
The armed forces have three branches: Navy , Army and Air Force. They serve primarily as a self-defense force whose mission is to protect the territorial integrity of the country and provide humanitarian assistance and security at home and abroad.
As of [update] , the three branches numbered 39, active personnel including 7, women. Portuguese military expenditure in was billion, representing 2.
Military conscription was abolished in The minimum age for voluntary recruitment is 18 years. The Army 21, personnel comprises three brigades and other small units.
In addition to the three branches of the armed forces, there is the National Republican Guard , a security force subject to military law and organization gendarmerie comprising 25, personnel.
This force is under the authority of both the Defense and the Interior Ministry. It has provided detachments for participation in international operations in Iraq and East Timor.
In the 20th century, Portugal engaged in two major conflicts: The Portuguese government is heavily indebted, and received a 78 billion euro bailout from the European Union and the International Monetary Fund in May The Portuguese government also agreed to eliminate its golden share in Portugal Telecom which gave it veto power over vital decisions.
This allowed considerable slippage in state-managed public works and inflated top management and head officer bonuses and wages. Persistent and lasting recruitment policies boosted the number of redundant public servants.
Risky credit , public debt creation, and European structural and cohesion funds were mismanaged across almost four decades.
In the second decade of the 21st century, the Portuguese economy suffered its most severe recession since the s, resulting in the country having to be bailed out by the European Commission, European Central Bank and International Monetary Fund IMF.
In May , the country exited the bailout but reaffirmed its commitment to maintaining its reformist momentum. At the time of exiting the bailout, the economy had contracted by 0.
The Global Competitiveness Report for —, published by the World Economic Forum , placed Portugal on the 36th position on the economic index.
Major state-owned companies include: The International Monetary Fund issued an update report on the economy of Portugal in late-June with a strong near-term outlook and an increase in investments and exports over previous years.
Because of a surplus in , the country was no longer bound by the Excessive Deficit Procedure which had been implemented during an earlier financial crisis.
The banking system was more stable, although there were still non-performing loans and corporate debt. The IMF recommended working on solving these problems for Portugal to be able to attract more private investment.
Agriculture in Portugal is based on small to medium-sized family-owned dispersed units. The country produces a wide variety of crops and livestock products, including: Traditionally a sea-power, Portugal has had a strong tradition in the Portuguese fishing sector and is one of the countries with the highest fish consumption per capita.
The nation is also a notable producer of tin , tungsten and uranium. Although the country has vast iron and coal reserves — mainly in the north — after the revolution and the consequent economic globalization , low competitiveness forced a decrease in the extraction activity for these minerals.
The Panasqueira and Neves-Corvo mines are among the most recognised Portuguese mines that are still in operation.
The largest lithium mine in Europe is operated by Grupo Mota, Felmica, in the Guarda region, which is estimated to have reserves for 30 years of production.
It has 5 more deposits in its possession. The company said the estimated mineral resources at the mine now stood at 14 million tonnes. Lithium prices have risen in expectation of growing demand for the mineral, which is used in batteries for electric vehicles and for storing electricity from the power grid.
Europe consumes more than 20 per cent of the global supply of battery-grade lithium but currently has to import all its supplies of the mineral.
The so-called reverse circulation drilling program included 15 holes with around 2, metres of total drilling. The objective is to extend resources by integrating the data from drilling results with the expansion expected with the ongoing campaign.
Wine has been one of the most noted Portuguese exports. The country is the seventh largest exporter of the product worldwide, by value.
Industry is diversified, ranging from automotive Volkswagen Autoeuropa and Peugeot Citroen , aerospace Embraer and OGMA , electronics and textiles , to food , chemicals , cement and wood pulp.
Modern non-traditional technology-based industries, such as aerospace , biotechnology and information technology , have been developed in several locations across the country.
Following the turn of the 21st century, many major biotechnology and information technology industries have been founded, and are concentrated in the metropolitan areas of Lisbon , Porto , Braga , Coimbra and Aveiro.
The banking and insurance sectors performed well until the lates financial crisis , and this partly reflected a rapid deepening of the market in Portugal.
While sensitive to various types of market and underwriting risks , it has been estimated that overall both the life and non-life sectors will be able to withstand a number of severe shocks, even though the impact on individual insurers varies widely.
Travel and tourism continue to be extremely important for Portugal. It has been necessary for the country to focus upon its niche attractions, such as health, nature and rural tourism, to stay ahead of its competitors.
Portugal is among the top 20 most-visited countries in the world, receiving an average of 20,, foreign tourists each year. Tourist hotspots in Portugal are: Also, between 5—6 million religious pilgrims visit Fatima each year, where apparitions of the Blessed Virgin Mary to three shepherd children reportedly took place in The Portuguese government continues to promote and develop new tourist destinations, such as the Douro Valley , the island of Porto Santo , and Alentejo.
The Rooster of Barcelos is bought by thousands of tourists as a souvenir. A number of both national and multinational high-tech and industrial companies, are also responsible for research and development projects.
One of the oldest learned societies of Portugal is the Sciences Academy of Lisbon , founded in Iberian bilateral state-supported research efforts include the International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory and the Ibercivis distributed computing platform, which are joint research programmes of both Portugal and Spain.
Portugal is a member of several pan-European scientific organizations. With the emergence and growth of several science parks throughout the world that helped create many thousands of scientific, technological and knowledge-based businesses, Portugal started to develop several  science parks across the country.
Companies locate in the Portuguese science parks to take advantage of a variety of services ranging from financial and legal advice through to marketing and technological support.
The European Innovation Scoreboard , placed Portugal-based innovation in the 15th position, with an impressive increase in innovation expenditure and output.
Again in the s, after joining the European Economic Community , the country built many new motorways. Opened in , the first motorway which linked Lisbon to the National Stadium was an innovative project that made Portugal among one of the first countries in the world to establish a motorway this roadway eventually became the Lisbon-Cascais highway, or A5.
Although a few other tracts were created around and , it was only after the beginning of the s that large-scale motorway construction was implemented.
On many highways, a toll needs to be paid, see Via Verde. Vasco da Gama bridge is the longest bridge in Europe. The primary flag-carrier is TAP Air Portugal , although many other domestic airlines provide services within and without the country.
The government decided to build a new airport outside Lisbon, in Alcochete , to replace Lisbon Portela Airport , though this plan has been suspended due to austerity measures.
One other important airport is the Aeroporto Internacional das Lajes on the island of Terceira in the Azores. This airport serves as one of two international airports serving countries outside the European Union for all nine islands of the Azores.
It also serves as a military air base for the United States Air Force. The base remains in use to the present day.
A national railway system that extends throughout the country and into Spain, is supported and administered by Comboios de Portugal.
The railway network is managed by Infraestruturas de Portugal while the transport of passengers and goods are the responsibility of Comboios de Portugal CP , both public companies.
The two largest metropolitan areas have subway systems: In Porto , a tram network , of which only a tourist line on the shores of the Douro remains, began construction on 12 September a first for the Iberian Peninsula.
All major cities and towns have their own local urban transport network, as well as taxi services. Portugal has considerable resources of wind and river power, the two most cost-effective renewable energy sources.
Since the turn of the 21st century, there has been a trend towards the development of a renewable resource industry and reduction of both consumption and use of fossil fuels.
New programmes combine wind and water: Instead of just delivering electricity, it draws electricity from even the smallest generators, like rooftop solar panels.
The government aggressively encouraged such contributions by setting a premium price for those who buy rooftop-generated solar electricity. The Statistics Portugal Portuguese: In and according to more up-to-date figures, the population decreased to 10,, A small number of the former Jews may have continued to observe rabbinic Judaism in secret over many generations, in the case of the secret Jews of Belmonte , a small town in the interior; where now people observe the Jewish faith openly.
After the distinction between Old and New Christians was abolished by decree. Another interesting demographic feature relates to the Scandinavian expansion towards the West and strong activity in Northern Portugal where it is believed some coastline communities kept Scandinavian ancestry in Aveiro , Porto and Braga regions.
The most important demographic influence in the modern Portuguese seems to be the oldest one; current interpretation of Y-chromosome and mtDNA data suggests that the Portuguese have their origin in Paleolithic peoples that began arriving to the European continent around 45, years ago.
All subsequent migrations did leave an impact, genetically and culturally, but the main population source of the Portuguese is still Paleolithic.
Genetic studies show Portuguese populations not to be significantly different from other European populations. With a low confidence range there are Scandinavian and East European genetical markers.
Native Portuguese are an Iberian ethnic group, whose ancestry is very similar to Spaniards and have strong ties with fellow Atlantic Arc countries like Ireland, British Isles, France and Belgium due to maritime trade dated as far back as the Bronze Age.
These maritime contacts and the prevalence of R1b haplogroup as the main genetical marker of these countries suggest a common ancestry and cultural proximity.
Other maritime contacts with the Mediterranean specially with Greeks, Romans, Moors, and Phoenicians add particular cultural phenotypes in Southern Portugal and Southern Spain Tartessos culture making both Portugal and Spain a bridge between North Western Europe and the Mediterranean but maintaining the Atlantic character.
The total fertility rate TFR as of [update] was estimated at 1. The structure of Portuguese society is characterized by an increasing inequality which at present places the country in the lowest third of the Social Justice Index for the European Union.
The expansionary budget, backed by a left-wing majority in parliament, also aims to boost the purchasing power of households while cutting the already low deficit even further.
Returning emigrants will be allowed to declare only half their taxable income for five years if they return, provided they lived abroad for at least three years.
Around , residents left Portugal between and in the wake of the global financial crisis. Although some , have since returned, Lisbon wants to tempt the rest to come home - in a similar scheme to the Irish one  - as well as Portugal struggles with the low birth rate and an ageing population.
In , Portugal had 10,, inhabitants of whom about , were legal immigrants. Consequently, it has both influenced and been influenced by cultures from former colonies or dependencies, resulting in immigration from these former territories for both economic and personal reasons.
Portugal, long a country of emigration the vast majority of Brazilians have Portuguese ancestry ,  has now become a country of net immigration,  and not just from the last Indian Portuguese until , African Portuguese until , and Far East Asian Portuguese until overseas territories.
Since the s, along with a boom in construction , several new waves of Ukrainian , Brazilian , Lusophone Africans and other Africans have settled in the country.
Romanian , Moldovans , Kosovar and Chinese have also migrated to the country. In addition, a number of EU citizens , mostly from the United Kingdom, other northern European or Nordic countries, have become permanent residents in the country with the British community being mostly composed of retired pensioners who live in the Algarve and Madeira.
According to the Census, Many Portuguese holidays, festivals and traditions have a Christian origin or connotation. Although relations between the Portuguese state and the Roman Catholic Church were generally amiable and stable since the earliest years of the Portuguese nation, their relative power fluctuated.
In the 13th and 14th centuries , the church enjoyed both riches and power stemming from its role in the reconquest , its close identification with early Portuguese nationalism and the foundation of the Portuguese educational system, including its first university.
The growth of the Portuguese overseas empire made its missionaries important agents of colonization , with important roles in the education and evangelization of people from all the inhabited continents.
The growth of liberal and nascent republican movements during the eras leading to the formation of the First Portuguese Republic —26 changed the role and importance of organized religion.
Portugal is a secular state: Other than the Constitution, the two most important documents relating to religious freedom in Portugal are the Concordata later amended in between Portugal and the Holy See and the Religious Freedom Act.
Portuguese is the official language of Portugal. Portuguese is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia and Northern Portugal , originating from Galician-Portuguese , which was the common language of the Galician and Portuguese people until the formation of Portugal.
There are still many similarities between the Galician culture and the Portuguese culture. Galicia is a consultative observer of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.
The Portuguese language is derived from the Latin spoken by the romanized pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula around years ago — particularly the Celts , Tartessians , Lusitanians and Iberians.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, the language spread worldwide as Portugal established a colonial and commercial empire between and Mirandese is also recognized as a co-official regional language in some municipalities of North-Eastern Portugal.
An estimate of between 6, and 7, Mirandese speakers has been documented for Portugal. The educational system is divided into preschool for those under age 6 , basic education 9 years, in three stages, compulsory , secondary education 3 years, compulsory since , and higher education subdivided in university and polytechnic education.
Universities are usually organized into faculties. Institutes and schools are also common designations for autonomous subdivisions of Portuguese higher education institutions.
The total adult literacy rate is 99 percent. Portuguese primary school enrollments are percent. In addition to being a destination for international students , Portugal is also among the top places of origin for international students.
All higher education students, both domestic and international, totaled , in Portuguese universities have existed since The oldest Portuguese university was first established in Lisbon before moving to Coimbra.
Presently, the largest university in Portugal is the University of Lisbon. The Bologna process has been adopted, since , by Portuguese universities and poly-technical institutes.
Higher education in state-run educational establishments is provided on a competitive basis, a system of numerus clausus is enforced through a national database on student admissions.
However, every higher education institution offers also a number of additional vacant places through other extraordinary admission processes for sportsmen, mature applicants over 23 years old , international students , foreign students from the Lusosphere , degree owners from other institutions, students from other institutions academic transfer , former students readmission , and course change, which are subject to specific standards and regulations set by each institution or course department.
Most student costs are supported with public money. Portugal has entered into cooperation agreements with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and other US institutions to further develop and increase the effectiveness of Portuguese higher education and research.
According to the latest Human Development Report , the average life expectancy in was Portugal ranks 12th in the best public health systems in the world, ahead of high developed countries like the United Kingdom , Germany or Sweden.
The Portuguese health system is characterized by three coexisting systems: The SNS provides universal coverage. Five regional health administrations are in charge of implementing the national health policy objectives, developing guidelines and protocols and supervising health care delivery.
Decentralization efforts have aimed at shifting financial and management responsibility to the regional level. In practice, however, the autonomy of regional health administrations over budget setting and spending has been limited to primary care.
The SNS is predominantly funded through general taxation. Employer including the state and employee contributions represent the main funding sources of the health subsystems.
In addition, direct payments by the patient and voluntary health insurance premiums account for a large proportion of funding.
Similar to the other Eur-A countries, most Portuguese die from noncommunicable diseases. Cancer is more frequent among children as well as among women younger than 44 years.
Although lung cancer slowly increasing among women and breast cancer decreasing rapidly are scarcer, cancer of the cervix and the prostate are more frequent.
Portugal has the highest mortality rate for diabetes in the Eur-A, with a sharp increase since the s. It is now around 2 deaths per a newborns.
This improvement was mainly due to the decrease in neonatal mortality, from People are usually well informed about their health status, the positive and negative effects of their behaviour on their health and their use of health care services.
Yet their perceptions of their health can differ from what administrative and examination-based data show about levels of illness within populations.
Thus, survey results based on self-reporting at the household level complement other data on health status and the use of services.
Only one third of adults rated their health as good or very good in Portugal Kasmel et al. This is the lowest of the Eur-A countries reporting and reflects the relatively adverse situation of the country in terms of mortality and selected morbidity.
Portugal has developed a specific culture while being influenced by various civilizations that have crossed the Mediterranean and the European continent, or were introduced when it played an active role during the Age of Discovery.
In the s and s decade , Portugal modernized its public cultural facilities, in addition to the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation established in in Lisbon.
Traditional architecture is distinctive and include the Manueline , also known as Portuguese late Gothic a sumptuous, composite Portuguese style of architectural ornamentation of the first decades of the 16th century.
A 20th-century interpretation of traditional architecture, Soft Portuguese style , appears extensively in major cities, especially Lisbon.
Portuguese cinema has a long tradition, reaching back to the birth of the medium in the late 19th century. Portuguese literature, one of the earliest Western literatures, developed through text as well as song.
Until , the Portuguese-Galician troubadours spread their literary influence to most of the Iberian Peninsula. Portuguese cuisine is diverse.
The Portuguese consume a lot of dry cod bacalhau in Portuguese , for which there are hundreds of recipes. Two other popular fish recipes are grilled sardines and caldeirada , a potato-based stew that can be made from several types of fish.
A very popular northern dish is the arroz de sarrabulho rice stewed in pigs blood or the arroz de cabidela rice and chickens meat stewed in chickens blood.
The Portuguese art of pastry has its origins in the many medieval Catholic monasteries spread widely across the country. Portuguese cuisine is very diverse, with different regions having their own traditional dishes.
The Portuguese have a culture of good food, and throughout the country there are myriads of good restaurants and typical small tasquinhas.
Portuguese wines have enjoyed international recognition since the times of the Romans, who associated Portugal with their god Bacchus.
Today, the country is known by wine lovers and its wines have won several international prizes. Port and Madeira are particularly appreciated in a wide range of places around the world.
Portuguese music encompasses a wide variety of genres. The traditional one is the Portuguese folk music which has deep roots in local costumes having as instruments bagpipes, drums, flutes, tambourines, accordions and small guitars cavaquinho.
The first capital of the island was Vila Franca do Campo , which was devastated by the Vila Franca earthquake and landslides. The tragedy helped to elevate Ponta Delgada to the administrative and economic status of capital and business centre from With the Portuguese Restoration War , the island regained its position as a commercial centre, establishing new contacts in Brazil , which was heavily colonized during this period.
In , during the Liberal Wars , following the landing of troops loyal to Queen Maria II in Nordeste sent by future Duke of Terceira , a resistance to the Absolutist regime on the Island was organized.
In , this militia declared allegiance to the Charter constitutional monarchy and Queen Maria, forming a contingent that sailed to the continent where they were involved in the liberation of Porto.
Following the Liberal Wars, the period of Devourism allowed the economy to flourish, and the port of Ponta Delgada expanded, through the export of new crops such as tea , pineapple , and tobacco.
The development of the fishing industry, cultivation of food staples and expansion of the dairy industry permitted the growth of many of the population centres on the island.
Following the Carnation Revolution , the island received the seat of the Presidency of the Autonomous Region of the Azores , located in Ponta Delgada, while its economic, social and political importance continued to grow within the archipelago.
In the ancient crater of Furnas the faults are aligned west-northwest to east-southeast. The Sete Cidades Massif — an area that occupies the extreme western part of the island, and corresponds to a central volcanic crater and lake-filled caldera , with various cones, deposits of pumice , lava domes and maars.
In the northeastern flank of this volcano the Mosteiros Graben , a tectonic structure created from the collapse of lands and located along a northwest to southeast orientation.
On the northeastern flank of the Massif the Ribeira Grande Graben is visible, representing a tectonic depression oriented northwest to southeast; The Achada das Furnas Plateau - a region with a central plain marked by cones and maars, with deposits along a west-northwest to east-southeast and northwest to southeast; Furnas Volcano - located in the eastern part of the island, along the southern coast, and comprising two ancient calderas, occupied by a lake Lagoa das Furnas.
From west to east these zones are: These geomorphological structures have resulted from millions of years of compound growth that began in the eastern portion of the island; around 4 million years ago the Nordeste Volcano burst from the ocean floor in effusive and fissural eruptions.
The first phase, composed of the older materials, erupted from lava flows and Trachyte pyroclasts, the secondary phase corresponded to volcanic products that began erupting , years ago.
These latter deposits included pyroclastic, trachyte flows lava and surges , mud flows and a mixture of basalts.
In what would become the western portion of the island a fourth volcano formed: These eruptions were explosive and fed by activities in the neighboring volcanic systems.
This formation integrated lavas, basaltic pyroclasts, tuff cones and trachyte domes into two layers referred to as the Ponta Delgada and Penhal da Paz sub-depoists and compiled to about 5, years ago.
They are primarily made up of basaltic cones which were formed during Strombolian and Hawaiian-style eruptions. This is the part of the island with most recent volcanic activity.
The youngest volcanoes are relatively well dated. It is estimated [ by whom? Several eruptions have been witnessed and recorded by people.
The last one took place in the 17th century. The ancient laurisilva forest has mostly been replaced by cultivated fields and imported trees and plants, such as the ubiquitous cryptomeria trees.
Lying at the eastern end of the island, it is the focus of a Special Protection Area containing the largest remnant of laurisilva forest on the island, which is home to the endemic and critically endangered bird, the Azores bullfinch.
One may see sea turtles , dolphins and humpback whales. Owing to the predominance of volcanic cones and craters in the interior, human settlement has developed primarily along coastal and interior plains.
Regardless, these settlements were largely agrarian and concentrated around the parish churches and the many fertile parcels of land.
The communities were largely isolated throughout the year, owing to the great distances and rough landscape of the island, and only became integrated with the development of the many road networks that circle and bisect the island.
Two cities have developed, largely because the island was divided by mountainous volcanic cones in the interior: